Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), also known as blacktail, are the primary species of deer in much of the West. Here we examine their hooves, tracks, gaits, and other sign.
Here is a bottom and side view of the front and hind hooves of a mule deer from Jim Halfpenny's ungulate collection.
Dew claws help spread the weight in soft mud.
Doe and fawn.
Comparison of browsed twig with budding willow twig.
Browse line on mountain ash (all but the top leaves were eaten).
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